Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune disease that causes scarring of the nerve tissue in the spinal cord and brain. More often observed in young people, the risk of getting multiple sclerosis decreases with old age. Every 40 people out of 200,000 people get sick.
The reasons for development include a decrease in the immunological resistance of the body and a deterioration in the properties of the blood-brain barrier, which begins to pass lymphocytes through itself. Those, in turn, destroy their own tissue, which leads to scarring and slowing down of nerve impulses.
The factors leading to this disease include:
- prolonged stressful situations;
- transferred infectious diseases;
- vitamin D deficiency
Clinical presentation and diagnosis
The disease develops gradually due to the fact that the brain is able to participate in restorative reactions, and the conduction of nerve impulses is compensated.
If more than half of the nerve fibers are damaged, then the first manifestations of multiple sclerosis begin, including:
- deterioration of vision from one or two sides;
- pain syndrome and a feeling of double vision;
- multiple paresthesias in the limbs;
- oppression of the sensitive function of the skin;
- muscle weakness;
- discoordination of movements.
- delay in urination and defecation;
- decreased libido;
- paralysis, fatigue, changes in behavior and intelligence, etc.
Since multiple sclerosis is a chronic disease, there is a stage of exacerbation and remission, respectively. With timely drug therapy, you can significantly reduce the number of exacerbations.
Diagnostics in the early stages of the development of the disease contributes to the correction and improvement of the quality of life. Anamnesis is collected and complaints are collected, pathological reflexes are detected in a neurologist, a general and biochemical blood test is prescribed in order to detect inflammation. To make a diagnosis, it is necessary to carry out instrumental research methods, such as CT and MRI, which allow to assess the severity of the condition and identify foci of sclerosed tissue.
Treatment and prevention
Plasma purification is often used, where the plasma with harmful substances is removed, and the erythrocyte mass is poured back. Plasma is compensated with protein solutions, donor blood, polyglucin. In parallel, preparations of interferon, glucocorticoids, such as prednisolone, muscle relaxants, cytostatics, immunomodulators, are used.
Also of great importance is diet therapy with the inclusion of large amounts of B vitamins in the daily diet.
Prevention is not specific, since it is not known what triggers the onset of the disease. General recommendations are given, such as avoiding stress, moderate exercise, avoiding bad habits, trying not to overheat, taking medications regularly and being monitored by a neurologist.